Bitcoin Q&A: Lightning and onion routing

How will Lightning Network(s) improve scalability and privacy in Bitcoin? What is the Basis of Lightning Technology (BOLT) interoperability standard? How many implementations are there? Onion-routed, anonymous payments payments. Are there centralisation risks?

Note: In this video I said, «There is also a company called Lightning Network», but I misspoke. The company name is «Lightning Labs». As I explained, the Lightning Network is an open protocol, like Bitcoin, and is a collaboration between 6 teams & companies producing open source software to a common specification.

lnd (Lightning Labs), c-lightning (Blockstream), eclair (ACINQ):

Integration tests:

This was part of the first monthly live Patreon Q&A session on November 27th, 2017. If you want early-access to talks and a chance to participate in the monthly live Q&As with Andreas, become a patron:

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The Lightning Network —
Bitcoin, Lightning, and Streaming Money —
Running nodes and payment channels —
What is the role of nodes? —
Lightning, full nodes, and miners —
Atomic swaps —
Microfinance and streaming money —
Fungibility, privacy, anonymity —
SegWit, scaling, and consensus —
Lightning Network without SegWit? —
Scaling is a moving target —
Altcoins and the scaling debate —
Introduction to the Internet of Money —
Bitcoin: Where the Laws of Mathematics Prevail —
Worse Than Useless: Financial Surveillance —

Andreas M. Antonopoulos is a technologist and serial entrepreneur who has become one of the most well-known and respected figures in bitcoin.

Follow on Twitter: @aantonop

He is the author of two books: “Mastering Bitcoin,” published by O’Reilly Media and considered the best technical guide to bitcoin; “The Internet of Money,” a book about why bitcoin matters.





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Music: «Unbounded» by Orfan (
Outro Graphics: Phneep (
Outro Art: Rock Barcellos (

Bitcoin Q&A: Lightning and onion routing: 31 комментарий

  • 15.01.2018 в 10:21 пп

    I have query about the size of the channels, I read that the main reason for the hubs is because when routing between nodes the size of the transaction is limited to the balance in the channel between nodes, and that hubs will have large capitol in them to allow large transfers, and its here where centralisation can occur as large companies will have the capitol to fund the hubs and can place restrictions and fee's on people that use them… this I'm my understanding, someone feel free to correct me

  • 16.01.2018 в 1:34 дп

    the haters forget that LN won't replace Bitcoin, because it's still Bitcoin! even with full blown LN adoption, you will still be able to send btc directly from wallet to wallet without touching the LNs, if you so wish.

  • 16.01.2018 в 1:49 пп

    Off chain settlements of a blockchain? What's the point of having a blockchain? Liquidity hub fractional reserve banking. Plastic surgery on a pig doesn't sound as catchy as lipstick on a pig, but that's what this sounds like to me.

  • 17.01.2018 в 5:21 дп

    Your arguments for why the lightning network won't lead to centralization seem disingenuous at best. dishonest at worst.

  • 17.01.2018 в 8:16 дп

    It seems to me that on the one hand Andreas has been big on the fact that bitcoin is "permission-less" but that payment channels and the "super hubs" that will be necessary will involve us having to get permission. So I'm not sure how Andreas resolves the contradiction..??

  • 18.01.2018 в 10:51 пп

    This is stupid. A disruptive technology disrupts. It doesnt beg you to implement some crazy sub network to get your technology to work which nobody is going to care about. Fix the fees. Forget this added complexity or bitcoin is doomed.

  • 20.01.2018 в 11:24 дп

    I do share similar concerns others have stated regarding lightening network resembling fractional reserve banking. I would go as far as to say that it is digital fractional reserve banking. Andreas, maybe you could do a video discussing this issue. I’ve seen a lot of talk about it across many crypto communities.

  • 20.01.2018 в 7:34 пп

    If you look at the LN testnet graphs, you can already see the hub-and-spoke model forming. Don't tell me it won't happen.

  • 30.01.2018 в 10:46 дп

    Since I discovered your work, I'm 20% less efficient in my daily work because I can't stop watching your videos 🙂 I think I'll get sacked. Then again, Bitcoin knowledge, hmmm…

  • 04.02.2018 в 8:01 пп

    Hi Andreas. You had explained well how increasing the block size isn't a solution for long term scaling and moreover that it would lead to centralisation. But I have one question. Don't you think that formation of lightning network nodes will lead to an infrastructure similar to the current banking system with permissions required to perform transactions and possibility of future government regulations?

  • 09.02.2018 в 6:14 дп

    One of the teams working on LN is a company called Lightning Labs… there is no “Lightning Network Company”

  • 10.03.2018 в 8:30 дп

    How can you trust a transaction whose history you can't trace? Can't malicious transactional senders deceive the good actors on the basis that they can't see the forrest through the trees? Onion routing. What stops a malicious actor from manipulation of nodes? A node with a lot of routes and connections becomes highly attractive hack targets? Is it because if they get hacked everyone using that channel loses money? What level of security can the lightning network be rated from a security auditing agency? Really. What's the best classification of security that the lightning network can be assigned? Best case scenario. I don't believe there are good answers to these questions. But maybe I'm nutso. I hope you all win all the things.

  • 10.03.2018 в 8:36 дп

    What happens with private keys when a key is authorized on a channel? Do we sacrifice our private keys for quick, cheap transactional operability? Not sure how that part works but very interested to understand.

  • 25.03.2018 в 8:20 пп

    You have to use your private key outside the Blockchain. People put two and two together and be careful, bitconnect/Mt Gox. He is finally letting people know the Blockchain idea was a scam form jump: bitcoin Blockchain is not possible; hence, lighting network. Got your Bitcoin?


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